B order silagra 50 mg with visa erectile dysfunction treatment options-pumps, Baseline PRA was higher in pregnant wom en com pared with those who were not pregnant safe 100mg silagra erectile dysfunction treatment edmonton, and pregnant wom en had a greater increase in renin after captopril com pared with those who were not pregnant. Som e wom en PREGNANCY AND RENAL DISEASE with intrinsic renal disease, particularly those with baseline azotemia and hypertension, suffer m ore rapid deterioration in renal function after gestation. In general, as kidney disease progresses and function Impact of pregnancy on renal disease Impact of renal disease on pregnancy deteriorates, the ability to sustain a healthy pregnancy decreases. The Hemodynamic changes → hyperfiltration Increased risk of preeclampsia presence of hypertension greatly increases the likelihood of renal deterioration. Although hyperfiltration (increased glom erular Increased proteinuria Increased incidence of prematurity, intrauterine growth retardation filtration rate) is a feature of norm al pregnancy, increased intra- Intercurrent pregnancy-related illness, eg, preeclampsia glom erular pressure is not a m ajor concern because the filtration Possibility of permanent loss fraction decreases. Possible factors related to the pregnancy-related of renal function deterioration in renal function include the gestational increase in proteinuria and intercurrent pregnancy-related illnesses, such as preeclam psia, that m ight cause irreversible loss of renal function. W om en with renal disease are at greater risk for com plications related to pregnancy such as preeclam psia, prem ature delivery, and intrauterine growth retardation. Diabetes M ellitus and Pregnancy FIGURE 10-7 RENAL DISEASE CAUSED Diabetes mellitus is a common disorder in pregnant women. Patients with overt nephropathy BY SYSTEM IC ILLNESS are likely to develop increased proteinuria and m ild but usually reversible deteriorations in renal function during pregnancy. H ypertension is com m on, and preeclam psia occurs in 35% of wom en. Pregnancies in women with evidence Pregnancy and SLE* Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in pregnancy of nephritis are potentially hazardous, partic- ularly if active disease is present at the time Poor outcome is associated with the following: Increased fetal loss of conception or if the disease first develops Active disease at conception Arterial and venous thromboses during pregnancy. W hen hypertension and Disease first appearing during pregnancy Renal vasculitis, thrombotic microangiopathy azotemia are present at the time of concep- Hypertension, azotemia in the first trimester Preeclampsia tion the risk of complications increases, as it High titers of antiphospholipid antibodies or Treatment: heparin and aspirin? The lupus anticoagulant presence of high titers of antiphospholipid antibodies also is associated with poor preg- *Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is unpredictable during pregnancy. The presence of anti- phospholipid antibodies or the lupus anti- coagulant is associated with increased fetal loss, particularly in the second trim ester; increased risk of arterial and venous throm - bosis; m anifestations of vasculitis such as throm botic m icroangiopathy; and an increased risk of preeclam psia. Treatm ent consists of anticoagulation with heparin and aspirin. Lupus Versus Preeclampsia FIGURE 10-9 LUPUS FLARE-UP VERSUS PREECLAM PSIA In the second or third trim ester of pregnancy a clinical flare-up of lupus m ay be difficult to distinguish from preeclam psia. Treatm ent of a lupus flare-up m ight involve increased im m unosuppression, SLE PE whereas the appropriate treatm ent of preeclam psia is delivery. Thus, it is im portant to accurately distinguish these entities. Erythrocyte casts and hypocom - Hypertension + + plem entem ia are m ore likely to be a m anifestation of lupus, whereas Erythrocyte casts + - abnorm al liver function test results are seen in preeclam psia and not Azotemia + + usually in lupus. Low C3, C4 + - Abnormal liver function test results - +/- Low platelet count + +/- Low leukocyte count + - C— complement; minus sign— absent; plus sign— present; PE— preeclampsia; SLE— systemic lupus erythematosus. O verall, the outcom e in pregnancy is favorable when the serum creatinine level is less than 1. Anatomic, congenital Glomerulonephritis Interstitial nephritis Polycystic kidney disease Advanced Renal Disease Caused by Polycystic Kidney Disease FIGURE 10-11 POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE Although advanced renal disease caused by polycystic kidney disease (PKD) usually devel- AND PREGNANCY ops after childbearing, wom en with this condition m ay have hypertension or m ild azotem ia. Pregnancy is associated with an increased incidence of asym ptom atic bacteriuria and urinary infection that m ay be Increased incidence of urinary tract infection m ore severe in wom en with PKD. The presence of m aternal hypertension has been shown Maternal hypertension associated with poor outcome to be associated with adverse pregnancy outcom es. Pregnancy has been reported to be associated with increased size and num ber of liver cysts owing to estrogen stim ulation. Extrarenal complications: subarachnoid hemorrhage, liver cysts W om en with intracranial aneurysm s m ay be at increased risk of subarachnoid hem orrhage during labor. M anagement of Chronic Renal Disease During Pregnancy FIGURE 10-12 MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC RENAL M anagem ent of chronic renal disease during pregnancy is best DISEASE DURING PREGNANCY accom plished with a m ultidisciplinary team of specialists. Preconception counseling perm its the explanation of risks involved with pregnancy. Patients should understand the need for frequent Preconception counseling m onitoring of blood pressure and renal function. Protein restriction Multidisciplinary approach is not advisable during gestation. W hen renal function is im paired, m odest salt restriction Frequent monitoring of blood pressure (every 1–2 wk) and renal function (every mo) m ay help control blood pressure. Blood pressure should be m ain- Balanced diet (moderate sodium, protein) tained at a level at which the risk of maternal complications owing Maintain blood pressure at 120–140/80–90 mm Hg to elevated blood pressure is low. Patients should be m onitored Monitor for signs of preeclampsia closely for signs of preeclampsia, particularly in the third trimester. The usual RENAL DISEASE IN PREGNANCY causes are new-onset glom erulonephritis or interstitial nephritis, lupus nephritis, or acute renal failure. Rarely, obstructive uropathy develops as a result of stone disease or large m yom as that have Glomerulonephritis Interstitial nephritis increased in size during pregnancy. Lupus nephritis Obstructive uropathy Acute renal failure Investigation of the Cause of Renal Disease During Pregnancy FIGURE 10-14 RENAL EVALUATION Investigation of the cause of renal disease during pregnancy can be conducted with serolog- DURING PREGNANCY ic, functional, and ultrasonographic testing. Renal biopsy is rarely perform ed during gesta- tion. Renal biopsy usually is reserved for situations in which renal function suddenly deteri- orates without apparent cause or when sym ptom atic nephrotic syndrom e occurs, particular- Serology ly when azotem ia is present. Alm ost no role exists for renal biopsy after gestational week Function 32 because at this stage the fetus will likely be delivered, independent of biopsy results. Ultrasonography Biopsy: <32 wk Deteriorating function Morbid nephrotic syndrome New-Onset Azotemia, Proteinuria, and Hypertension Occurring in the Second Half of Pregnancy FIGURE 10-15 INTRINSIC RENAL DISEASE VERSUS PREECLAM PSIA N ew-onset azotem ia, proteinuria, and hypertension occurring in the second half of pregnancy should be distinguished from pre- eclam psia. M ost cases of preeclam psia are associated with only Renal disease Preeclampsia m ild azotem ia; significant azotem ia is m ore suggestive of renal dis- ease. Azotem ia in the absence of proteinuria or hypertension would Serum creatinine >1. Throm bocytopenia, elevated liver function Uric acid Variable >5. Urine analysis Variable Protein, with or without erythrocytes, leukocytes Kidney Disease and Hypertension in Pregnancy 10. O ccasionally, glom erulonephritis or obstructive nephropathy m ay be seen. Acute cortical necrosis m ay com plicate severe obstetric hem orrhage. Acute renal failure m ay be a com plication of the rare syndrom e of Acute tubular necrosis; hemodynamic factors, toxins, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, a disorder that occurs late in gestation characterized by serious infection, and so on jaundice and severe hepatic dysfunction. This syndrom e has features that overlap with the Acute interstitial nephritis hem olysis, elevated liver enzym es, and low platelet count (H ELLP) syndrom e variant of Acute fatty liver of pregnancy preeclam psia as well as m icroangiopathic syndrom es (eg, hem olytic urem ic syndrom e and Preeclampsia-HELLP syndrome throm botic throm bocytopenic purpura). Microangiopathic syndromes Acute cortical necrosis: obstetric hemorrhage HELLP— hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count. HELLP Syndrome, AFLP, TTP, and HUS FIGURE 10-17 DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF M ICROANGIOPATHIC Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low SYNDROM ES DURING PREGNANCY platelet count (HELLP) syndrome; acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP); thrombotic throm bocytopenic purpura (TTP); and HELLP AFLP TTP HUS hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) have sim- ilar clinical and laboratory features [18,19]. Hypertension 80% 25–50% Occasional Present The subtle differences are summarized.
The risk of abuse of these sub- PTSD than in control subjects (191 purchase line silagra impotence 16 year old,193 buy 50mg silagra otc impotence from stress,194), although stances appears increased in patients with anxiety disorders, baseline concentrations of catecholamines are not consis- a finding raising the possibility that such patients are 'self- tently altered in combat-related PTSD (188,189). Geracioti medicating' anxiety symptoms with these agents. Finally, plate- function play a primary, etiologic role in the pathogenesis let 2-adrenoreceptor density (196), platelet basal adeno- of anxiety disorders, or instead reflect secondary, compensa- sine, isoproterenol, forskolin-stimulated cyclic adenosine tory changes in response to disorders in other systems. Altered 2-adrenoreceptor sensi- subjective anxiety ratings increase in response to exposure tivity is evidenced by findings that administration of the to phobic stimuli (199). Subjects with social anxiety disor- 2-adrenoreceptor agonist, clonidine, results in greater hy- der show greater increases in plasma NE during orthostatic potension and larger reductions in plasma 3-methoxy-4- challenge than healthy subjects or those with PD (200). The hydroxyphenylethylene glycol (MHPG) in PD relative to growth hormone response to intravenous clonidine (a control subjects (178–181). In addition, administration of the -adrenoreceptor antagonist, yohimbine (which stimu- marker of central 2-adrenoreceptor function) is blunted 2 lates NE release by antagonizing presynaptic -adrenore- in social anxiety disorder (201), although the density of 2 ceptors) produces exaggerated anxiogenic and cardiovascu- lymphocyte -adrenoreceptors has not differed between so- lar responses and enhanced plasma MHPG and cortisol cial anxiety–disordered and control samples (202) (Table increases in PD relative to control subjects (133,172,173, 63. Finally, yohimbine administration resulted in Finally, Gerra et al. However, the Chapter 63: Neurobiological Basis of Anxiety Disorders 913 pretest baseline NE concentrations did not differ between Conversely, positive early-life experiences during critical the anxious and control subjects. For example, daily postnatal handling of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone rat pups by human experimenters within the first few weeks of life has been shown to produce persistent (throughout Exposure to acute stress of various types results in release life) increases in the density of type II glucocorticoid recep- of CRH, ACTH, and cortisol. This increase was associated with enhanced feedback during acute stress can produce a transient elevation of the sensitivity to glucocorticoid exposure and reduced glucocor- plasma cortisol concentration and partial resistance to feed- ticoid-mediated hippocampal damage in later life (214, back inhibition of cortisol release that persists during and 215). These effects are hypothesized to comprise a type of shortly after the duration of the stressful stimulus. Taken ticoid receptors, because elevated glucocorticoid levels such together with the data reviewed in the preceding paragraph, as those elicited by acute stress decrease the number of hip- these data indicate that a high degree of plasticity exists in pocampal glucocorticoid receptors, with a resulting increase stress-responsive neural systems during the prenatal and in corticosterone secretion and feedback resistance (204). The During some types of chronic stress, adaptive changes feedback inhibition of CRH function by glucocorticoids (to in ACTH and corticosterone secretion occur such that the suppress HPA-axis activity) occurs at the level of the PVN plasma ACTH and corticosterone concentrations achieved of the hypothalamus, where systemically administered glu- are lower than those seen in response to acute stress (205). In contrast, other types of chronic stress are associated with cocorticoids reduce CRH expression, and the anterior pitui- enhanced corticosterone secretion in rats (206). Moreover, tary, where glucocorticoids decrease CRH receptor expres- Dallman and Jones showed that the experience of prior sion (217–220). The regulation of CRH receptor mRNA stress can result in augmented corticosterone responses to expression shows a regional specificity that becomes altered subsequent stress exposure (207). The factors that deter- when stress occurs concomitantly with elevated glucocorti- mine whether adaptation or sensitization of glucocorticoid coid concentrations. After both short-term and long-term activity occurs after chronic stress remain poorly under- corticosterone (CORT) administration, the CRH receptor stood. RNA expression decreases in the PVN and the anterior pi- Some stressors experienced within critical periods of neu- tuitary (219). However, after acute or repeated immobiliza- rodevelopment exert long-term effects on HPA-axis func- tion stress sufficient to produce a large increase in plasma tion. In rats exposed to either severe prenatal (in utero) stress CORT levels, the CRH mRNA expression decreases in the or early maternal deprivation stress (208,209), the plasma anterior pituitary, but increases in the PVN. In contrast, concentrations of corticosterone achieved in response to neither CORT administration nor restraint stress alters the subsequent stressors are increased, and this tendency to CRH receptor expression in the CE of the amygdala or the show exaggerated glucocorticoid responses to stress persists BNST. Furthermore, CRH secretion is not constrained by into adulthood. Early postnatal adverse experiences such as glucocorticoids in the CE or the lateral BNST, and CRH maternal separation are associated with long-lasting altera- mRNA expression increases in these areas during systemic tions in the basal concentrations of hypothalamic CRH CORT administration (217,218,220). It is thus conceivable mRNA, hippocampal glucocorticoid-receptor mRNA, me- that the positive feedback of glucocorticoids on extrahypo- dian eminence CRH, and in the magnitude of stress-in- thalamic CRH function in the amygdala or the BNST may duced CRH, corticosterone, and ACTH release (210–212). Adult monkeys who were raised in such involves functional differences between CRH-receptor a maternal environment are also hyperresponsive to yohim- subtypes. The CRH1 and CRH2 receptors appear to play bine and have elevated CRH concentrations and decreased reciprocal roles in mediating stress responsiveness and anxi- cortisol levels in the CSF, findings that parallel those in ety-like behaviors (221). Mice genetically deficient in humans with PTSD (213). CRH1-receptor expression exhibit diminished anxiety and 914 Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress stress responses to threat or stress (222,223). In contrast, tion, cortisol suppression was found to be normal (234) or mice deficient in CRH2 receptors display heightened anxi- enhanced (228,235,236) in PTSD, with the latter result ety in response to stress (224,225). The affinity of CRH is particularly found in response to low-dose (0. This find- endogenously released in mice genetically altered to overex- ing, together with the observations that patients with PTSD press CRH (221). Also consistent with the hypothesis that show hypersensitivity to low-dose dexamethasone, led Ye- CRH1-receptor stimulation facilitates anxiety responses, huda et al. Preliminary data suggest that a reduced CSF CRH concentration and in the pituitary-adrenal and cortisol response after trauma exposure may predict PTSD adrenal-medullary activity) to acute social stress in monkeys development, a finding raising the possibility that enhanced (226). In monkeys, the CRH1-receptor two studies of CSF concentrations, both of which found density is high in most amygdaloid nuclei, the cingulate abnormally increased in chronic, combat-related PTSD cortex, the PFC, the insular cortex, the parietal cortex, the (239,240). Potentially consistent with this observation, dentate gyrus, and the entorhinal cortex, and it is moderate PTSD samples show a blunted ACTH response to CRH in the CE and the LC. The CRH2-receptor density is high relative to control samples (241,242). Although these obser- in the cingulate cortex, the mPFC, the CE, the CA-1 region vations would appear most consistent with findings that of the hippocampus, and the PVN and supraoptic nucleus basal cortisol secretion and excretion are abnormally in- of the hypothalamus. An important avenue of future re- creased in PTSD (190,192,232,233), they do not clearly search will involve assessments of the homeostatic balance contradict the findings of normal or reduced peripheral cor- between CRH1- and CRH2-receptor systems in anxiety dis- orders. Disorders Nevertheless, the studies that either identified reductions or were unable to identify elevations in peripheral cortisol The anxiety disorder for which abnormalities of CRH or concentrations in PTSD present a challenge to the hypothe- HPA-axis function has been most commonly reported is sis that the reduced hippocampal volume found in MRI PTSD. Nevertheless, the nature of such abnormalities has studies of PTSD (reviewed earlier) are accounted for by been inconsistent across studies, because basal plasma or cortisol hypersecretion (150). This hypothesis may still be 24-hour urine cortisol concentrations have been reported reconciled with the peripheral cortisol measures associated to be abnormally decreased (227–229), not different (230, with chronic PTSD if the cortisol secretion was elevated 231), or abnormally increased (190,192,232,233) in PTSD near the time of the stressor (191,243). Longitudinal studies samples relative to healthy or trauma-matched control sam- in male patients who developed PTSD after motor vehicle ples. Differences across these studies may reflect effects of accidents suggest that cortisol secretion is elevated 1 month gender, age of illness onset (i. During provoca- Hippocampal damage may thus conceivably occur in PTSD tion of PTSD symptoms by exposure to combat sounds, during a period of excessive cortisol secretion that follows the changes in plasma cortisol and ACTH concentrations the traumatic event and is prolonged enough so that hippo- did not differ between patients with combat-related PTSD campal neuronal atrophy becomes irreversible. An alterna- and either healthy or combat-matched, non-PTSD control tive hypothesis for the reduction of hippocampal volume subjects (232). In response to dexamethasone administra- in PTSD, however, is that this abnormality antedates the Chapter 63: Neurobiological Basis of Anxiety Disorders 915 TABLE 63. EVIDENCE OF ALTERATIONS IN Functional Interactions among CRF-HPA AXIS FUNCTION IN ANXIETY DISORDERSa Noradrenergic, HPA, and CRH Systems PTSD Panic Disorder Coordinated functional interactions between the HPA axis Alteration in urinary cortisol +/–a +/– and the noradrenergic systems play major roles in producing Altered plasma cortisol with + (dec. The secretion 24-hour sampling of CRH increases LC neuronal firing activity and results in Supersuppression with DST ++b – enhanced NE release in a variety of cortical and subcortical Blunted ACTH response to ++ +/– regions (252,253).
Patients receiving placebo exhibited significantly for up to 4 weeks (86) order 50mg silagra overnight delivery erectile dysfunction pump covered by medicare. There were no significant differences greater improvement in YMRS total scores compared with among the three treatment groups in reductions on the patients receiving gabapentin purchase silagra pills in toronto erectile dysfunction treatment medscape. YMRS, BPRS, CGI, and GAF from baseline to endpoint In the second controlled trial, 28 patients with bipolar (LOCF). In the second trial, 158 inpatients receiving lith- I(n 13) or bipolar II (n 15) disorder received 6-week ium or VPA were randomized to adjunctive therapy with crossover trials of gabapentin, lamotrigine, or placebo (29) risperidone 1 to 6 mg per day (n 52), haloperidol (n The reduction in manic symptoms as measured by the CGI- 53), or placebo (n 51) for up to 3weeks (84). Patients BP was not significantly different among the three treat- receiving risperidone or haloperidol displayed significantly ments. However, manic symptoms were quite low at base- greater improvement at 1 week, 2 weeks, and at endpoint line, raising the possibility that meaningful differences (LOCF), but not at 3weeks of treatment on the YMRS among the three groups might not have been detected. There were no motrigine was also compared with lithium in a 4-week dou- significant differences between the risperidone and placebo ble-blind, randomized trial in 30 inpatients with bipolar I groups from baseline to endpoint in BPRS and HamD total disorder (39). There are no controlled trials of risperidone in the lamotrigine 25 mg per day for the first week, 50 mg per maintenance treatment of patients with BD. At the conclusion of the study, both agents produced significant reductions in mean Mania Rat- Ziprasidone ing Scale, BPRS, and CGI total scores from baseline to Acute Mania endpoint. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups. The small sample size, low lithium Ziprasidone has been studied in placebo-controlled trials dose, use of as needed lorazepam throughout the trial, and in the treatment of acute mania in patients with BD and absence of a placebo control group limit the results of this schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type (42,47). In this study, bipolar I produced significant reductions on the Manic Rating Scale (n 130) and bipolar II (n 52) patients who were (MRS) total score (from the SADS-C) at day two and stabilized on initial open-label lamotrigine monotherapy throughout the remainder of the trial compared with pla- were randomized to lamotrigine or placebo in a 26-week cebo. Based on a 50% reduction in MRS total scores, prevention trial. There were no significant differences be- significantly more ziprasidone-treated patients responded tween the lamotrigine and placebo groups in time to drop (50%) compared with placebo-treated patients (36%). This out for any reason and time to need for additional medica- study confirmed the findings of an earlier study that found tion among bipolar I patients. However, in bipolar II pa- that ziprasidone produced significant reductions in manic tients, treatment with lamotrigine was associated with sig- symptoms compared with placebo in patients with schizoaf- nificantly lower relapse rates on these measures compared fective disorder (47). Finally, there are no controlled trials of quetiapine in the acute or mainte- nance treatment of BD. THE RATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TRULY NOVEL TREATMENTS FOR BD Signal Transduction Modifiers NEW ANTIEPILEPTICS Although the large number of anticonvulsants and atypical Four new antiepileptic agents, gabapentin, lamotrigine, top- antipsychotic agents in the pharmacopeia has greatly en- iramate, and tiagabine are being investigated as potential hanced our ability to treat patients with BD, there is still antimanic agents (62). To date, no controlled trials have clearly a real need to develop truly novel agents to ade- been reported for topiramate or tiagabine. However, two quately treat this devastating illness, and modify the long- controlled studies evaluated gabapentin in the treatment of term outcome for millions of sufferers. In the first study, 117 outpatients in the development of truly novel agents has been the dearth with bipolar I disorder who displayed breakthrough manic of knowledge pertaining to the underlying pathophysiology symptoms (defined as a YMRS total score 12), whereas of the illness. A true understanding of the pathophysiology on therapeutic doses of lithium, VPA, or the combination, of an illness as complex as BD must clearly address its neuro- were randomized to adjunctive treatment with gabapentin biology at different physiologic levels (i. Abnormalities in gene expres- Chapter 77: Treatments for Acute Mania and Prophylaxis for Bipolar Disorder 1115 sion undoubtedly underlie the neurobiology of the disorder for the action of lithium has been identified. Klein and at the molecular level; this will become evident as we iden- Melton (51) were the first to demonstrate that lithium, at tify the susceptibility and protective genes for BD in the therapeutically relevant concentrations, inhibits glycogen coming years. Once this has been accomplished, however, synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 ). GSK3 is now known to play the even more difficult work must begin to examine the a critical role in the CNS, by regulating various cytoskeletal impact of the faulty expression of these gene products (pro- processes, synaptic plasticity, and long-term gene expression teins) on integrated cell function. Interestingly, VPA (but not CBZ) also concentra- critical signaling molecules recently have been identified as tion-dependently inhibits GSK-3 in vitro, with significant candidate targets for the development of truly novel agents effects observed at concentrations of VPA similar to those for the treatment of BD. Most recently, it has been dem- Multicomponent, cellular signaling pathways interact at onstrated that the chronic (3- to 4-week) administration of various levels, thereby forming complex signaling networks lithium and VPA also increase -catenin levels in rodent that allow the cell to receive, process, and respond to infor- brain (Chen and Manji, unpublished observations), com- mation (58). The high degree of complexity generated by patible with inhibition of GSK3 during chronic in vivo these signaling provides neurons with the flexibility to gen- administration of the agents under therapeutic paradigms. These pathways are undoubtedly involved in regu- neuroplastic events in the CNS, and there is considerable lating such diverse vegetative functions as mood, appetite, excitement about the possibility of developing novel GSK- and wakefulness, as well as higher cognitive functions—sys- 3 modulators as potential new therapeutics for both BD tems that are all affected in BD—and thus represent attrac- and neurodegenerative diseases (60). Over the last decade, there have been major advances in our understand- ing of the critical role of the protein kinase C (PKC) signal- NEUROTROPHIC AND NEUROPROTECTIVE ing pathway as a therapeutically relevant target for the long- AGENTS FOR THE OPTIMAL LONG-TERM term actions of mood stabilizers (57,59). The preponder- TREATMENT OF BD ance of the data indicates that chronic lithium attenuates PKC responses and down-regulates specific PKC isozymes Recent studies investigating potential structural brain (57). Studies in rodents and cultured cells have demon- changes in mood disorders have demonstrated reductions strated that chronic (but not acute) lithium produces an in regional CNS volume and cell numbers (both neurons isozyme-selective reduction in PKC and. It is thus noteworthy that structurally highly dissimilar antimanic agent VPA produces lithium and VPA have recently been demonstrated to ro- strikingly similar effects on the PKC signaling pathway, as bustly increase the expression of the cytoprotective protein does lithium (17,57). In view of the pivotal role of the PKC bcl-2 in the CNS (59,61). Chronic lithium not only exerts signaling pathway in the regulation of neuronal excitability, neuroprotective effects in several preclinical paradigms, but and neurotransmitter release (57), it was postulated that the also enhances hippocampal neurogenesis (61). VPA robustly attenuation of PKC activity might play a major role in the promotes neurite outgrowth and activates the ERK MAP antimanic effects of lithium and VPA. There is currently kinase pathway, a signaling pathway utilized by many only one relatively selective PKC inhibitor available for endogenous neurotrophic factors (61). Tamoxifen, a synthetic non- preclinical neurotrophic/neuroprotective effects, chronic steroidal antiestrogen, is also a potent PKC inhibitor at ther- lithium treatment of patients with BD increases brain N- apeutically relevant concentrations (20). Therefore, a pilot acetylaspartate (NAA, a putative marker of neuronal viabil- study was initiated to investigate the efficacy of tamoxifen ity and function) levels, effects that are localized almost in the treatment of acute mania, and it was found that exclusively to gray matter (61). To determine if lithium was tamoxifen did indeed possess antimanic activity (57,58). Nevertheless, the signifi- chronic lithium significantly increases total gray matter vol- cant (and in some cases rapid and striking) results that have ume in the human brain of patients with BD (61). In view of the preliminary data evidence demonstrating the neurotrophic effects of lithium, suggesting the involvement of the PKC signaling system in VPA, and antidepressants, the enhancement of hippocam- the pathophysiology of BD (17,57), these results suggest pal neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain, as well as that PKC inhibitors may be very useful agents in the treat- the growing appreciation that mood disorders are associated ment of BD. Larger, double-blind placebo-controlled stud- with cell loss and atrophy, suggest that these effects may be ies of tamoxifen and novel selective PKC inhibitors in the very relevant for the long-term treatment of mood disorders. It is perhaps useful to conceptualize the cell death and atro- In recent years, a hitherto completely unexpected target phy that occurs in mood disorders as arising from an impair- 1116 Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress ment of 'cellular resiliency. Therapeutic effects of CBZ in affective death pathways are currently under investigation. Response to clozapine CONCLUDING REMARKS in acute mania is more rapid than that of chlorpromazine. Olanzapine compared to lithium The growing body of data implicating signaling pathways in mania: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.
As data screening revealed issues with item 31 100mg silagra otc erectile dysfunction with ms, this was removed from all data sets for the subsequent factor analyses silagra 100mg otc impotence 40 years. Initially, the analysis team had agreed on data imputation rules in preparation for the confirmatory factor analyses. However, as polychoric correlations were used for these analyses, this was no longer necessary. Additionally, no data needed to be discarded, and the sample size could be maintained at 662. Results of exploratory factor analysis on baseline data set A An initial EFA yielded 10 factors with eigenvalues of > 1. The loading pattern matched that of the questionnaires, although with some substantial cross-loadings; we named the four factors as: l factor 1: behaviours and strategies (considerable cross-loading with factor 3) l factor 2: family approval/behaviours and child attitudes (items 29 and 32 loaded most on factor 1) l factor 3: confidence and motivations (with high cross-loadings to other factors) l factor 4: peer norms (item 16 loading substantially more with factor 2). Results of exploratory factor analysis on baseline data set A Replication with the 12-month data set A yielded a similar pattern. Again, substantial cross-loadings were noticeable: l factor 1: additional behaviours and strategies (considerable cross-loading with factor 3) l factor 2: family approval/behaviours and child attitudes (items 29, 30 and 32 loaded most on factor 1) l factor 3: confidence and motivation (with high cross-loadings to other items especially item 6) l factor 4: peer norms (item 16 loading substantially more with factor 2). This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals 193 provided that suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. T A Screening summary of MLQ Likert scale items for baseline data sets A and B and 12-months data sets A and B D ata set A H ighest ighest F lesch- K i caid pairitem pairitem M Q readi g ease ean lo r% eili g ( co rrelati ean lo r% eili g ( co rrelati item r r co efficien t r r co efficien t B se li n i t m s 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 D ata set A H ighest ighest F lesch- K i caid pairitem pairitem M Q readi g ease ean lo r% eili g ( co rrelati ean lo r% eili g ( co rrelati item r r co efficien t r r co efficien t 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 c T A Screening summary of MLQ Likert scale items for baseline data sets A and B and 12-months data sets A and B ( t ue ) D ata set A H ighest ighest F lesch- K i caid pairitem pairitem M Q readi g ease ean lo r% eili g ( co rrelati ean lo r% eili g ( co rrelati item r r co efficien t r r co efficien t 4 4 4 4 4 5 1 m on t i t m s 6 7 8 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 D ata set A H ighest ighest F lesch- K i caid pairitem pairitem M Q readi g ease ean lo r% eili g ( co rrelati ean lo r% eili g ( co rrelati item r r co efficien t r r co efficien t 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 c T A Screening summary of MLQ Likert scale items for baseline data sets A and B and 12-months data sets A and B ( t ue ) D ata set A H ighest ighest F lesch- K i caid pairitem pairitem M Q readi g ease ean lo r% eili g ( co rrelati ean lo r% eili g ( co rrelati item r r co efficien t r r co efficien t 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 S h ad ing d e note s th e ite ms i li te d accord ing to th e pre s pe cif ie d crite ria in th e ps ych ome tric e valuation. Results of confirmatory factor analyses Confidence and motivation (items 6–14) The fit indices of the first model (without any error variance correlations) showed that the solution was marginally adequate. Using an iterative approach, error variances were correlated based on modification indices. However, such correlations were kept to a minimum and conducted based on shared meaning or structure of questions. After a satisfactory model fit was obtained for the baseline data set B, the exact same model was fitted to the 12-month data set B. The fit for the replication data set was slightly worse. A multigroup invariance test (reported below) will specifically test generalisability of these fits to the 12-month data set. Peer norms (items 15–22) The fit indices of the first model (without any error variance correlations) showed that the solution was inadequate. Additionally, the regression weights for items 15–17 were low, at 0. After correlating the error terms for a cluster of three items with shared meaning (Items 19, 20, and 22 were all about helping parents), the fits improved substantially (Table 54). Additionally, the regression weights for items 15–17 increased to 0. After a satisfactory model fit has been obtained for the baseline data set B, the exact same model was fitted to the 12-month data set B (see Table 54), showing that this solution was also adequate for that data set. TABLE 53 Goodness-of-fit indices for the confidence and motivation subscale Baseline data set B 12-month data set B No error variance Error variance Error variance Fit index correlation correlation correlations Satorra–Bentler scaled χ2/df 9. Fit indices for the replication of the final model with the 12-month data set B are also shown. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals 199 provided that suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. APPENDIX 18 TABLE 54 Goodness-of-fit indices for the peer norms subscale Baseline data set B 12-month data set B No error variance Error variance Error variance Fit index correlation correlation correlation Satorra–Bentler scaled χ2/df 10. Fit indices for the replication of the final model with the 12 months Dataset B are also shown. Family approval/behaviours and child attitudes (items 23–32 without item 31) The fit indices of the first model (without any error variance correlations) showed that the solution was marginally adequate, although the RMSEA was slightly elevated, at 0. After correlating error terms for pairs of items with shared meaning, the fit became excellent (Table 55). After a satisfactory model fit had been obtained for baseline data set B, the exact same model was fitted to the 12-month data set B (see Table 55), showing that this solution was also excellent for that data set. Behaviours and strategies (items 33–50) The fit indices of the first model (without any error variance correlations) showed that the solution was marginally adequate, although the RMSEA was slightly elevated, at 0. After correlating error terms for pairs of items with shared meaning, the fit has become very good (Table 56). After a satisfactory model fit had been obtained for baseline data set B, the exact same model was fitted to the 12-month data set B (see Table 56). The fit for the replication data set was worse, and the RMSEA was now > 0. A multigroup invariance test (reported below) will provide more detailed information about the adequacy of this model for the 12-month data set. TABLE 55 Goodness-of-fit indices for the family approval/behaviours and child attitudes subscale Baseline data set B 12-month data set B No error variance Error variance Error variance Fit index correlation correlation correlation Satorra–Bentler scaled χ2/df 6. Fit indices for the replication of the final model with the 12-month data set B are also shown. Fit indices for the replication of the final model with the 12-month data set B are also shown. Results of multigroup invariance test The following analyses were conducted to test specifically the suitability of the factor solution obtained from baseline data set B with the 12-month data set B. These tests were conducted separately for each subscale. A baseline model (model 1) for each subscale tested for generalisability of the final factor solutions reported to the 12-month data set (configural invariance). In this model, the 12-month data set received separate factor loadings and error variances. In the next model (model 2), the factor loadings of the 12-month data set were fixed to the values estimated for the baseline data set. Comparing the fit between models 1 and 2 is thus a test of metric invariance. In other words, if model 2 does not provide a significantly improved fit (as assessed by a chi-squared difference test) compared with model 1, the factor loadings for the two data sets can be assumed to be equal. In the next step, invariance of error variation and the error term correlations was investigated. Model 3 fixed the general error variance and the values of error term correlations of the 12-month data set to the values for the baseline data set.